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      細致分析SCI論文中的時態

      2023.05.23 0+

      經常有人弄不清楚在寫SCI論文過程中,時態具體該怎樣用,這篇文章就具體分析了時態的用法,希望對大家有所幫助。


      相比于傳說中的英文16種時態,SCI其實用到的最主要就是其中的2種(一般現在時和一般過去時),已經算是很大程度的簡化了,把各種情況梳理一遍,寫作時應該就不會覺得混亂了。


      首先,咱們來復習一下這兩種時態所適用的情況,不管寫什么文章,時態的運用肯定都符合英語語法的基本原理。


      一般現在時:


      主要用于描述不受時間限制的客觀存在事實或真理,簡單地說,寫作當時你覺得是正確的或正在發生的內容,都可以用一般現在時。比如,客觀陳述他人已經發表的研究成果作為佐證時,普遍都用一般現在時。 基于此,“Introduction”中的文獻回顧和 “Discussion”中的大部分,都可用一般現在時描述。


      一般過去時:


      用于描述發生于論文寫作之前的事情,包括作者自己所做的工作。比如,論文中“Materialand Methods” 和 “Results” 的大部分,這些在論文動筆前肯定都已經做完,整理完了,所以用過去時,不難理解。


      p.s. 一般現在時和一般過去時是寫作中最常用到的兩個時態,但在實際寫作中,當然還會運用到其它一些時態,比如將來時,現在完成時,甚至過去時,以適應豐富的文章內容,下面會給大家詳細講解。


      接下來,咱們結合SCI文章內容,看看具體論文中時態應該如何使用。一般的Original Article 通常包括 Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion 這幾個部分,每個部分大概有什么內容大家應該都有了解吧?其它類型的文章也都可以根據這種類型舉一反三,那我就直接以Original Article為例講時態運用了哈。


      摘要(Abstract):


      一般情況下,研究背景,實驗目的,論文結論,采用一般現在時。實驗方法,結果及發現,采用過去時。舉幾個栗子:


      研究背景:A method to select non-responders as early as possible is essential for preventing unnecessary toxicity.


      實驗方法:Human breast cancer cells were injected into nude rats.


      實驗結果:A new in vivo breast cancer model was successfully established.


      論文結論:The present study suggests that ...


      當然,有些雜志也會專門有些比較“特別”的要求,比如Cell,要求Abstract全部使用一般現在時。大家可以自行體會下:

      Here we present a unifying hypothesis about how messenger RNAs, transcribed pseudogenes, and long non-coding RNAs “talk” to each other using microRNA response elements (MREs) as letters of a new language. We propose that this “competing endogenous RNA” (ceRNA) activity forms a large-scale regulatory network across the tranome, greatly expanding the functional genetic information in the human genome and playing important roles in pathological conditions, such as cancer.


      前言(Introduction):


      這部分用到的時態很多變,不能一概而論。


      研究背景描述的如果是經典原理,事實,或目前為止最前沿的結果,作者寫論文時仍認為是正確的(即使是曾經發生的),用一般現在時。


      比如:CircRNAs are recently identified as a naturally occurring family of noncoding RNAs that is highly represented in the eukaryotic tranome.


      描述已經完成的事,強調 “曾經”,目前為止對此持肯定態度,用現在完成時。


      比如:A large number of circRNAs have been successfully identified in various cell lines and across different species.


      曾經的研究,其結果現在為止仍然正確,則一句話中可以既有完成時,也有一般現在時。


      比如:Recent studies have shown that exon circularization is facilitated by complementary sequences and regulated by specific protein factors.


      以作者為主語,闡述曾經的研究結果,如果該研究結果仍然正確,則謂語動詞用過去時,從句中仍使用一般現在時。


      比如:Poliseno et al. recently proposed that the high sequence homology enablespseudogenes to compete with their parental genes for a shared pool of common miRNAs.


      曾經的研究,但已經過時或失效,作者懷疑其正確性,或要否定其正確性時,用過去時或過去完成時。


      比如:Nevertheless, these species had generally been considered to be of low abundance and likely representing errors in splicing.

      LincRNA-p21 was initially identified as a direct tranional target of p53.


      材料與方法(Materials and methods):


      描述寫論文之前作者所做的工作,用一般過去時。


      比如:The proliferation of Huh-7, HCT-116, HeLa cells was tested by CCK-8 kit.


      這部分一般時態變化比較少,沒什么爭議。


      結果(Results):


      描述自己的研究結果,因其發生于寫作之前,用過去時。


      比如:In total, 67,358 distinct circRNA candidates were found in these tissues and 27,296 of these circRNAs contained at least two unique back-spliced reads.


      但是,單純描述結果呈現形式(圖或表),或直接用圖或表作為主語時,因為是寫作當時發生的事,所以使用一般現在時。


      比如:A detailed summary for each sample is provided in Supplementary Table 1.


      Figure 1 shows the mean spectra for the original data.


      討論:


      對此次研究結果的總結,用過去時。


      比如:In this study, we identified lincRNA-p21 as a key regulatorof cell proliferation and apoptosis.


      對Results部分的結果描述進行更深入的分析和討論,闡述結果的意義,用一般現在時。


      比如:However, certain circRNAs are predominately expressed in one gene locus and present at substantial levels that suggest these species are purposefully produced.


      結論:


      強調過去的研究成果采用過去時,表達將來的研究方向或研究前景用將來時。


      比如,In conclusion, our study provided a portrayal of circRNAs in different human normal and cancerous tissues.


      闡述自己研究成果的意義用一般現在時。


      比如,Taken together, these lines of evidence reveal a new level of diversity in the tranome and their regulation in human cells.


      提出研究前景或將來的研究方向用將來時,這部分也可能出現在Discussion中。


      比如,It willbe interesting to explore whether lincRNA-p21 can interact with epigenetic factors


      參考文獻

      1. Thomson, D.W. and M.E. Dinger, Endogenous microRNA sponges: evidence and controversy. Nat Rev Genet, 2016. 17(5): p. 272-83.2.

      2.  Wu, G., et al., LincRNA-p21 regulates neointima formation, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, apoptosis, and atherosclerosis by enhancing p53 activity. Circulation, 2014. 130(17): p. 1452-65.3.

      3. Karreth, F.A., et al., The BRAF pseudogene functions as a competitive endogenous RNA and induces lymphoma in vivo. Cell, 2015. 161(2): p. 319-32.4.

      4. Zheng, Q., et al., Circular RNA profiling reveals an abundant circHIPK3 that regulates cell growth by sponging multiple miRNAs. Nat Commun, 2016. 7: p. 11215.

      5. Salmena, L., et al., A ceRNA hypothesis: the Rosetta Stone of a hidden RNA language? Cell, 2011. 146(3): p. 353-8.

      本文轉自https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/143586597

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